The United Nations Security Council has been told that the failure of Nigerian leaders to deal with diversity was the root cause of the Biafran crisis. The person who made the presentation, was South Africa´s former president Thabo Mbeki, who lived in Nigeria for a few years in the late 70s during the anti-apartheid struggle. Mbeki addressed the UN Security Council on Tuesday and listed African countries, apart from Nigeria, where the failure to deal with diversity was a root cause of conflict. He blamed the current clashes in Ethiopia´s Tigray region, also on the failure to manage diversity. Mbeki recalled that the Nigerian government was victorious against secessionist-seeking Biafra 50 years ago and its leaders announced “that they would follow a policy of no victor, no vanquished.” Looking at the “painful example” of the ongoing conflict between the Ethiopian government and ethnic Tigrayans, Mbeki said, “this is exactly what Ethiopia needs. Thabo Mbeki cited “the centrality of failure properly to manage diversity” in the conflicts in Congo, Burundi, Ivory Coast and Sudan. He pointed to the 2004 report of the Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission “which tells the naked truth, that it was as a result of the failure to manage diversity that the country experienced a very costly 11-year war which started in 1991” — and there is a similar failure to manage diversity “in the violent conflict which has been and is still going on in Cameroon.” France´s U.N. ambassador, Nicolas De Riviere, had some additions. In the Sahel region stretching across northern Africa between the Atlantic Ocean and the Red Sea, “terrorist groups use differences to stir up hatred between communities,” he said. And ethnic and religious violence is also prevalent in the Middle East including Iraq, Yemen and Syria. They spoke at a U.N. Security Council meeting on “Diversity, State Building and the Search for Peace” that was organized by Kenya, which holds the council presidency this month, and chaired by its president, Uhuru “The key message I wish to deliver today is that poor management of diversity is leading to grave threats to international peace and security,” Kenyatta said. He said inequality within and between countries “is too often the result of exclusion on the basis of identity” that becomes institutionalized in governments and in economic relations.