Concepts and variables are mental pictures; concepts are extremely subjective and cannot be quantified until they are ope-rationalized; variables, on the other hand, may be measured using one of the statistical scales. Let's take a closer look at ideas and variables to better comprehend them. What exactly are concepts? Because concepts are very subjective in nature, using them in a research study might be challenging. These subjective ideas are impossible to quantify using a statistical scale. According to Kumar (2000), ideas are mental pictures, and hence their meanings differ significantly from person to person. Concepts are subjective impressions, and people's comprehension of them varies, making it difficult to compare answers if they were quantified. Concepts should be transformed into variables so that they may be measured; nevertheless, the precision of the same variable will vary depending on the scale. If the researcher is employing ideas in his investigation, he will need to discover indicators that represent these notions. These indicators might be chosen by the researcher subjectively, but they must have a logical connection to the idea. After that, the indications may be transformed into variables. Example: Take, for example, the success of a drug in healing an illness. The researcher can use the following indicators: changes in death rate, changes in morbidity, changes in disease recurrence, or disease prevention. These indications can subsequently be transformed into variables and measured.2. We may use another idea as an example: how wealthy someone can be. To quantify this notion, you'll need an indication, and you may determine someone's wealth by looking at his possessions. This wealth can take the shape of his earnings, cash in his bank accounts, owned homes or other real estate, and so on. Get more: Projects Topics A psychologist might wish to see how successful his counseling for anxiety sufferers is. Effectiveness is a notion that is impossible to quantify using any statistical scale. He can measure the success of his counseling therapy using the following indicators: % decrease in inpatient anxiety, number of days off from work, number of visits to the psychologist's office, and so on. You can't measure anything on a scale unless you transform your notion into an indicator and then a variable. These indicators are not suited for use directly in a research project due to their subjectivity.